History of Machu Picchu
It is very important to note that the history of Machupicchu and that of the Incas is based above all on hypotheses that do not clearly answer many questions, so there are still many puzzles to solve from the origin, technology, and many other questions; so this information follows the same course of the hypothesis
The citadel of Machu Picchu has been able to have several periods of occupation. Taken from the chronicles, the construction style and the found ceramics have deduced the following:
Initial period: 1300 AD
Classic Period: 1400 AD
Imperial period: 1533 AD
Transition period 1533-1572 AD
Most modern archaeologists and historians agree that Machu Picchu was built by the Inca Pachacutec, the greatest statesman of the Tahuantinsuyo, who possibly ruled from 1438 to 1471.
Archaeologists assume that the construction of the citadel dates from the fifteenth century approximately chronological date given by carbon-14 or radiocarbon.
The construction of Machu Picchu would have begun when the territory of the Incas began to grow. According to the archaeologists, in this area the last battle that defined the victory over the Chancas was fought, covering a prestigious victory and giving power to the Inca Pachacutec.
The origin of Machu Picchu is attributed with certain certainty to Pachacútec, which was characterized by its territorial conquests, and by the development of religion and spirituality.
Built as a refuge for the elite of the Inca aristocracy, the fortress is located on the eastern slope of the Vilcanota mountain range, about 80 kilometers from Cusco, the capital of the empire. Its strategic location was chosen with admirable knowledge. Surrounded by steep cliffs and far from the sight of strangers
Occupied by at least three generations of Incas, Machu Picchu was abandoned in a sudden and mysterious decision.
The strongest hypothesis explains its disappearance from historical memory because Machu Picchu was unknown to the lower castes and its routes were forbidden to anyone who was not part of the Inca’s small circle.
The selection of the site to raise Machu Picchu must have been made with great care, since it was, and still is, a great place to raise a ceremonial center.
On July 24, 1911 it is known as the date of the “discovery” of the famous Inca citadel of Machu Picchu, an architectural treasure that had been hidden for more than four centuries under the exuberant nature of the Urubamba canyon.
Although the discovery points to Bingham, Cusco researcher Simone Waisbard said the discovery was the result of an opportunity, since Enrique Palma, Gabino Sánchez and Agustín Lizárraga were the first to visit these archaeological remains, their names were recorded on 14 July 1901 on some stones.
Then, the discovery of Binghamse would reduce the diffusion of the fact to science.
People really knew Machu Picchu and even lived in it, but they had no idea of its greatness.
Although the rediscovery of the citadel is attributed to the American historian Hiram Bingham, there are sources that indicate that Agustín Lizárraga, a character from the native land of Cuzco, arrived at the ruins nine years before the historian
• According to Hiram Bingham, Lizarraga would have left an inscription on one of the walls of the Temple of the Three Windows. This record would have been removed later.
Bingham understood the enormous historical value of the discovered ruins and contacted Yale University, the National Geographic Society and the Peruvian government, requesting the sponsorship to begin the studies in the Inca archaeological site.
The archaeological work was carried out from 1912 to 1915. In this period, they managed to clear the weeds that hold the Citadel and excavated the Inca tombs that are beyond the walls of the city.
In 1913, the National Geographic magazine published in an extensive article of Machu Picchu and the works that were made there, revealing to the world the citadel.
Over the years, the importance of tourism in the citadel of Machu Picchu would grow, first nationally and then internationally, becoming a World Heritage Site by Unesco in 1983.
Machu Picchu was designated as one of the New Seven Wonders of the World in 2007, Machu Picchu is now the most visited attraction in Peru and the most famous ruins in South America, welcoming hundreds of thousands of people each year.
When you think of Machu Picchu, one of the first names that comes to mind is Hiram Bingham. Few people know that Agustín Lizárraga is one of the unrecognized discoverers of the Sanctuary.