Machu Picchu is considered a ruin?
The city of Machu Picchu preserves many of its original structures, expressed in the areas chosen by Pachacutec, found a granite plateau where many people started a very expensive and ambitious project, built a citadel that would last forever.
They knew how to take advantage of the terrain that was sometimes so difficult to measure and avoid earthquakes and other calamities. The use of stones such as basalt, andesite and many other types of stones made it so resistant to many natural disasters.
These stones were brought from a place called Batholitic de Vilcabamba, where all the stones were cut and taken to the Sanctuary and also to build the city of Cusco when the Spanish conquerors arrived at these sites.
The buildings made in Machu Picchu, correspond to a specific type of mandate of the Inca Pachacutec, which wants to preserve the environment and ecology. It is well known that the Incas never knew the wheel, but it is not difficult to understand that in this place the wheel never worked due to the land and the inclination of the site, because many people say that how is it possible that few men could bring from a Great distance huge stone blocks already cut so perfectly that when you put them on top of each other, not even a hair could pass between them.
Each construction made in Machu Picchu has a specific function: religious, administrative, political and social, the two most important were religious and administrative, because the religious part was the daily ritual of his life and the transit through Machu Picchu, and the administrative part, because each product had to go through the control of the guardians who kept safe the Sanctuary and the Tambos, the warehouses that kept all the products that grew in the Citadel.
Why Ruins and not amazing engineering work?
Machu Picchu is considered one of the seven modern wonders of the world, due to its incredible construction, but the name ruin is not adequate, the ruin is a place where everything is about to collapse or fall, is not the case of Machu Picchu: Take the example of some of the sites in Europe, the Roman Forum, the Parthenon, they are ruins because the state of construction, but for many people it is not a ruin, it is a sign of the greatness of the ancient world, and this Ancient world is the legacy for many people.
Sincerely, the word ruin is not the exact word to describe Machu Picchu.
The word Sanctuary describes the complex of Machu Picchu very well, because in that place many rituals and sacrifices were offered to calm and keep happy one of the most important deities of the Tahuantinsuyo: the Sun, his father, his creator. It is no coincidence that Machu Picchu was built at high altitude, the reason is that they felt closer to heaven and closer to their God.
The state of the modern wonder must be our pride because it is our responsibility that Machu Picchu maintains the category of that, competing with the pyramids of Giza, Petra.
The Temple and many others, the National Institute of Culture (INC) is the organization that strives to keep alive the culture and the legacy of Machu Picchu, showing us that this Sanctuary is one of its kind, that there will be no other Machu Picchu and that it must put ourselves in the position of not destroying our national and world heritage.
2) The true name of Machu Picchu: Patallaqta
Patallaqta comes from two words in Quechua, Pata which means steps, and Llaqta, which means town, this name comes from the way in which the constructions were established, initially the Machu Picchu complex will work to administer the place, but its importance caught the eyes of Pachacutec, who saw that this place could be a sanctuary and a place of pilgrimage.
A Spanish historian, Mari Carmen Rubio, said that this name comes from the chronicles written by Juan de Betanzos in the sixteenth century, which say that Pachacútec was buried in this sanctuary. This is the reason why Betanzos said that: All the Incas were buried in the Temple of Coricancha (Temple of the Sun) but according to Betanzos, Pachacutec was buried in Patallaqta and his remains were left in a clay pot.
But the story does not end here, because the Incas always made 2 packages, one was taken to the Coricancha and the other to a special place where nobody expected it. Some priests may worship the rest of the body. Pachacutec was like the South American Alexander the Great, a man who conquered many territories and was one of the few governors who came to the jungle, an unknown but very fertile territory to cultivate many products.
Now, the name Machu Picchu comes from the Spanish word Pico (Pico) and the word to describe a mountain is Orqo, it is not its original name, it was a Spanish way of mentioning this place, and the name itself could have been invented in the republican time.
Federico Kauffman Doig, one of the most important archaeologists, said that Machu Picchu is the way in which the people of these places in their very poor Spanish referred to the Sanctuary. He said that the real and original name is not Patallaqta, it is Llaqta Pata, because that is the correct way to pronounce it in Quechua.
When Hiram Bingham arrived in the city of Cusco, he was told that one of these places, where people lived for centuries, was called Llactapacta, a place near where Bingham found Machu Picchu. According to Mari Carmen Martin, this place was never abandoned and maybe that’s why this place never lost its original name.
Llactapacta was in fact a real house, in modern terms it could be a mansion where Pachacutec could have lived in the 15th century, Llactapacta is also known as the “up” city (Llaqta-place, Pacta-Steps or altitude).
The Spanish historian found in 1987,82 chapters of the Chronicle of Juan de Betanzos called Sum and Narration of the Incas, written in 1551, who recounted about the organization of the Incas at that time.
Another fact is that Machu Picchu has many names used by the natives, one of them is Vitcos, and more recently is Cajaroma, the last one comes from the Betanzos chronicle, who mentioned that this city could be the true Machu Picchu, because according to for Betanzos this is one of the many cities that Pachacútec conquered when he was governor of the Tahuantinsuyo Empire, but it could also be the land of a jungle tribe that lived when Pachacútec had control of the entire empire.
There are many theories about the true name of Machu Picchu, but Cajaroma needs to be investigated to reach a conclusion and finally know what the real name of Machu Picchu was.
Every year, many natives of the communities of Cusco such as Chaupibanda, Qehue and Canas gather around the bridge and initiate an ancestral ritual called Minka, which consists in doing community work that will be useful for each person who lives near the river. This type The material is used by locals and is more effective than stone or other materials, because it is easier to rebuild the bridge and also avoid disasters such as earthquakes and other calamities.
The Minka lasted 4 days and the main event was the reconstruction of the bridge, which brought together the people who lived in the nearby provinces, after that they celebrated it with dances and drinks for the people who participated in this ancient ritual.
This renovation of the bridge is considered since 2009 as National Heritage, this is an example of the legacy that the Incas left to their generations, and also mentioned the effective and simple technology of the Tahuantinsuyo people.
Pachacutec, Lord of the Tahuantinsuyo Empire
Everything begins with a single person, who transforms the entire territory of Tahuantinsuyo, with his courage and strength began to create one of the most important empires in the history of the world, this person is Pachacutec, the Inca emperor.
Machu Picchu, the untold story
Two people, one story in common: to be recognized as the first to visit the Sanctuary, one is a native of the town, who always knew the place, and the other an American adventurer who with a bit of luck and good contacts could show the Entire humanity is one of the most beautiful sanctuaries in history. But behind that there are many things you should know, Machu Picchu, The Story not told a meeting with 2 people with one thing in common: Stay as the original discoverers of this great place.
The legend of the Ayar brothers
Many of the stories that an ancient city tells us refer to power, great decisions and fantastic abilities. The legend of the Ayar brothers tells us how Manco Capac remained the supreme leader of the entire Inca Empire.
The Legend of Manco Capac and Mama Ocllo
It is the classic story: two people, a man and a woman, a supreme entity that sent them to populate a large territory, The Legend of Manco Capac and Mama Ocllo tells the story of an ancient group, the founders of one of the most powerful and organized cultures: the Incas and their empire the Tahuantinsuyo.
Religious significance in Machu Picchu
The Sanctuary is full of cosmic and universal symbolism, but one of the most important aspects is its religious significance in Machu Picchu, with several particular ways of understanding the universe that is Machu Picchu.
The 10 best secrets of Machu Picchu
This ancient Inca site has centennial secrets trapped in its walls, and other more recent ones that we spill here.
By Mark Adams, author of Turn Right at Machu Picchu
It is not really the Lost City of the Inca.
This coastal community is being swallowed by the ocean
When explorer Hiram Bingham III met Machu Picchu in 1911, he was looking for a different city, known as Vilcabamba. This was a hidden capital to which the Inca had escaped after the Spanish conquistadors arrived in 1532. He eventually became famous as the legendary Lost City of the Inca. Bingham spent most of his life arguing that Machu Picchu and Vilcabamba were one and the same, a theory that was not proved wrong until after his death in 1956. (It is believed that the real Vilcabamba was built in the jungle at about 80 km west of Machu Picchu.) Recent research has cast doubt on whether Machu Picchu had ever been forgotten at all. When Bingham arrived, three families of farmers lived on the site.
It is not strange to earthquakes.
The stones in the most beautiful buildings of the entire Inca Empire did not use mortar. These stones were cut with such precision, and they were joined so tightly that you can not insert a credit card between them. In addition to the obvious aesthetic benefits of this style of construction, there are engineering advantages. Peru is a seismically unstable country (Lima and Cusco have been devastated by earthquakes) and Machu Picchu was built on two faults. When an earthquake occurs, it is said that the stones in an Inca building “dance”, that is, they bounce through the tremors and then return to their place. Without this method of construction, many of Machu Picchu’s best-known buildings would have collapsed long ago.
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Many of the most impressive things are invisible.
While the Incas are best remembered for their beautiful walls, their civil engineering projects were also incredibly advanced. (Especially, as is often pointed out, for a culture that did not use draft animals, iron tools or wheels). The site we see today must be sculpted from a notch between two small peaks moving stone and earth to create a flat space. Engineer Kenneth Wright has estimated that 60 percent of the construction in Machu Picchu was underground. Much of that consists of foundations of deep construction and crushed rock used as drainage. (As anyone who has visited in the wet season can tell you, Machu Picchu receives a lot of rain).
You can walk to the ruins.
A trip to Machu Picchu is many things, but cheap is not one of them. Train tickets from Cusco can cost more than one hundred dollars each, and entrance fees are an additional $ 43. In the middle, a round trip bus ride back and forth down the 2,000-foot-high hillside on which the ruins of the Incas are located costs another $ 14. However, if you do not mind exercising, you can upload and download for free. The steep path follows roughly the 1911 route of Hiram Bingham and offers extraordinary views of the Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu, which looks almost as it did in the Bingham era. The climb is strenuous and lasts about 90 minutes.
There is a large hidden museum that no one goes to.
For visitors conditioned to explanatory posters in national parks, one of the strangest things about Machu Picchu is that the site provides virtually no information about the ruins. (This lack has an advantage: the ruins remain orderly.) The excellent Manuel Chávez Ballón Site Museum ($ 8 entry) fills in many of the blanks on how and why Machu Picchu was built (screens are in English and Spanish ), and why the Inca chose such an extraordinary natural location for the citadel. First you have to find the museum, however. It is uncomfortably hidden at the end of a long dirt road near the base of Machu Picchu, about 30 minutes walk from the town of Aguas Calientes.
There is more than one peak to climb.
Long before dawn, visitors anxiously wait outside the bus depot in Aguas Calientes, hoping to be one of the first people to enter the site. Why? Because only the first 400 people who log in are eligible to climb Huayna Picchu (the small green beak, shaped like a rhinoceros horn, which appears at the bottom of many photos of Machu Picchu). Almost no one bothers to ascend to the pinnacle that anchors the opposite end of the site, which is usually called Machu Picchu Mountain. At 1,640 feet it is twice as high, and the views it offers of the area surrounding the ruins – especially the white Urubamba River meandering around Machu Picchu like a coiled serpent – are spectacular.
There is a secret temple.
If you are one of the lucky early risers who hooks a spot on the guest list to Huayna Picchu, do not just climb the mountain, take some photos and leave. Take the time to follow the spooky trail to the Temple of the Moon, located at the end of Huayna Picchu. Here, a kind of ceremonial sanctuary has been built in a cave lined with exquisite stone works and niches that were once used to contain mummies.
There are still things that can be found.
If you move away from the central ruins of Machu Picchu, you will notice that occasionally the lateral paths branch off into the thick foliage. Where are you going? Who knows. Because the cloud forest grows rapidly in the area surrounding Machu Picchu, it is possible that there are still unknown trails and ruins that are nearby. Several recently renovated terraces are being made available to the public for the first time this summer.
It has a great sense of direction.
From the moment that Hiram Bingham climbed to Machu Picchu in 1911, visitors have understood that the natural environment of the ruins is as important to the site as the buildings themselves. Recent research has shown that the location of the site and the orientation of its most important structures were strongly influenced by the location of the nearby sacred mountains, or apus. An arrow-shaped stone on the peak of Huayna Picchu seems to point south, directly through the famous Intihuatana Stone, towards Mount Salcantay, one of the most revered apus in Inca cosmology. On important days of the Inca calendar, you can see that the sun rises or rises behind other significant peaks
It could have been the end of a pilgrimage.
A new theory proposed by the Italian archaeoastronomical Giulio Magli suggests that the trip to Machu Picchu from Cusco could have had a ceremonial purpose: to repeat the celestial journey that, according to the legend, the first Inca took when they left the Island of the Sun in the Lake Titicaca Instead of simply following a more sensible path along the banks of the Urubamba River, the Incas built the impractical but visually impressive Inca Trail, which according to Magli, prepared pilgrims for the entrance to Machu Picchu. The final stage of the pilgrimage would have ended with the ascent to the Piedra de Intihuatana, the highest point of the main ruins.